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He was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which officially opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government.Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache (LEGAT) offices and 15 sub-offices in U. just as the CIA has a limited domestic function; these activities generally require coordination across government agencies. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners.The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation, the BOI or BI for short. In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals.
Additionally, through the work of Edwin Atherton, the BOI claimed success in apprehending an entire army of Mexican neo-revolutionaries under the leadership of General Enrique Estrada in the mid-1920s, east of San Diego, California.But as detailed below, his proved to be a highly controversial tenure as Bureau Director, especially in its later years.After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years.On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department.The bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910.
The program is expanded further by this executive order by making all federal employment of homosexuals illegal. In 1977–1978, 300,000 pages, collected between 1930 to the mid-1970s, in the Sex Deviate Program were destroyed by FBI officals. Among its targets was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a leading civil rights organization whose clergy leadership included the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., who is addressed in more detail below.